The basic principles of Global Service regarding Process
The goal of this note is always to present an individual arguments to be able to convince an individual and invite one to employ us all for program of Judicial or perhaps Extra Judicial files, Commercial or perhaps Civil inside the Jurisdictions regarding Europe. My partner and i intent hereto offer enough legitimate and plausible arguments concerning our “Hybrid System”.
International Private Service regarding Process (IPSOP) is probably the services regarding Joseph Any. de L . A . CUETARA, in practice, an Global law Legal professional providing law suit support companies, as properly as typical legal companies on the european union. Our companies are: Program of Method, taking depositions or perhaps evidence, Legitimate Videographers, Choices, Judgment restoration or enforcing, Legitimate Research, Exequatur, Inter ethnic negotiations (ADR-Mediation, Purchases, Conciliations and also Arbitration), in brief, all those areas of international exclusive relations around the different Hague Events. We are usually registered and also insured Legal professionals at legislation, having actual offices inside Spain and also France and from the virtues with the treaty regarding Rome, creating the european union, our legitimate practice will be authorized in every one of the European Union’s Jurisdictions.
There are usually two principal methods to pick from when offering documents on the european union, both strategies, are proposed from the Hague Meeting of 1965 and possess the identical legal benefit, no pecking order exist among them, but you are less reliable compared to the other, the legitimate effects are this is the same. We propose one third method, an assortment of the previously mentioned which we all call “Hybrid”. Any methods utilized are beyond your Hague Meeting or unusual.
The simple legal types of the Hague Convention will be the following:
A single, a community service with the “Judicial Administration” referred to as “Centralized Authority” as it uses the particular “Government” to be able to transmit files. Is will be intergovernmental, in principle a free of charge service yet submitted to be able to economical constrains together with high likelihood of no achievement.
Two, by way of a supplier, alternative approach, called “decentralized”, it could use a great “International exclusive process server”, “Mail” or perhaps “Local Bailiffs”; All beneath the Hague Meeting regulations, Fine art. 10. It’s applicability varies with all the country’s resistance. As an exclusive method, it really is paid, and so submitted to advertise and top quality control.
Global Service regarding Process, simply by either approach, is decided by a couple of different legitimate systems, linked from the treaty with the Hague. The key law, referred to as “Lex Fori”, could be the law the location where the documents are usually issue and also where judgment occurs, “Lex fori forum”. These kinds of rules, govern program of method validity and also recognition inside the “lex fori forum”, however, not necessarily the effects and also legality inside the jurisdiction in which documents in which served, “Lex loci”. Recognition and also enforcement from the “Lex loci forum” be determined by the value for inside laws regarding civil procedure as well as the procedure regarding “exequatur” It really is then to be able to each “lex fori” and also their “foum” to ascertain their requirements with an “acceptable service” yet being their particular powers constrained in space they could not put in force it in another country, so automatically need to make note of that: The work of notification is accomplished under an alternative legal method with diverse exigences, those of your sovereign express which has to be taken inside consideration, according to International treaties and also for upcoming enforcement.
According to International Legitimate Principles, we could affirm a “Lex fori forum” can’t accept in the procedure any “foreign against the law procedural actuation”, a great act in which violates overseas laws. Alternatively the “Lex Loci forum” is not going to enforce any judgment received under these kinds of circumstances inside. Because with this, you need to act inside harmony together with local requirements of procedure as well as the Hague Convention rather than only with your own personal laws,. or perhaps, your liability will probably be engaged in the Criminal or perhaps Civil way.
The Centralized method is apparently the best suited and trustworthy, but it isn’t, is not necessarily mandatory or exclusive, as explained from the Hague Meeting itself (look at the Department regarding State’s1 website pages to find out more). Which means “Central Authority” just isn’t the simply organ offered as offered to serve files abroad as could be the general feel or since promoted simply by many translation companies or perhaps unscrupulous servers that have created any: “Vox Populi” in which takes good thing about ignorance with the treaty, to offer Translations and also Apostilles.
Luckily for your legal career, there are some alternatives or perhaps decentralized programs, Art. 10 any, b and also c with the Convention, usually more trustworthy and constantly faster and also efficient. The strategy to employ has to be in simply no conflict with all the laws regarding Civil Method of equally jurisdictions required and both has to be signatory nations around the world as discussed in Fine art. 5, t.: That can be a legal a harmonious relationship of “Lex fori” and also “Lex loci”. These laws has to be applied at the same time when offering.
All signatory nations around the world have approved the “Centralized” method rather than all accept every one of the channels with the the “decentralized method”. Inside Europe many countries acknowledge both totally. The purpose is that a lot of people believe the different decentralized approach does or exist. The legitimate text usually are not interpreted or perhaps applied properly because it ends being a “Fraud to be able to International law” and also service will be Void or perhaps Voidable.
The particular liberty regarding method will be inspired simply by “International City Procedural Liberty” Meeting, as expected from the Hague regarding 1954 offering flexibility for the Convention regarding 1965. The advancement of equally and their particular application and also Interpretation simply by jurisprudence provides given a confident empiric end result. Mondialisation regarding process, which needed a quick way regarding Judicial details exchange and also judgment in which adapts with it. World business, has opened the entranceway to more effective and fast means of litigation and also serving method, resulting in the gain of energy and funds by slicing “Red Tape”. However, there are usually limits to the liberty in which transform directly into critics for the methods and also which derive from the must eliminate several absurd requirements just like the risky test of legality ahead of service or the decision given to be able to defendant to be able to refuse program if documents usually are not translated as well as the lacunae for instance no big difference between program to Men and women or Multinational Companies, Nonresistance regarding presumptions and more will notice later..
The particular Hague Convention’s Centralized approach has, since said several “legal lacunae” or perhaps serious problems:, the main you are this is a free governmental service that will not uses any “fast Self-sufficient Private Method Server”, since is required by several courts and also litigants, it really is defective and sometimes deceptive approach. It promotes the employment costly translation as well as the contents regarding summons will be exam regarding legality before they could be served. These requirements helps it be slow and so not designed to modern day international law suit. It can be contradictory because beneath the veil regarding gratuity there’s a series regarding unnecessary expenditures that bring about an pricey service, a lot more that making use of private programs. I ponder over it promotes needless translations due to the fact, if documents usually are not translated, the offender can reject service and also in some other cases the particular central authority will never be able to be able to exam their particular legality, Write-up 5..
A good idea is not to offer the documents translated until you do that properly with all the right certified professional. Being a preventive determine, if you are doing a translation in order to avoid “possible” upcoming problems, the translation itself may be easily “questioned” inside court in the course of enforcement due to the fact European process of law only acknowledge as appropriate translations from people that give the mandatory legal assures, either simply by Certification and/or Sign up. Is is known as that simply those listed annually by different Courts or perhaps the Overseas Affairs Ministries. carry out reliable translations. You can find other “glitches” in which appear on the home Legislation but these may be kept in the home.
On one other hand, a vital defect of while using the Centralized, could be the requirement of your exact deal with of offender. A difficulty, because there’s no possibility regarding “locating any defendant” or perhaps “Skip tracing”. The Key Authority will not “search” for folks or Businesses. If any defendant adjustments address or perhaps the address just isn’t correct, if he could be a vacationer or against the law, service will be paralyzed and also returned, wasting your time and energy and funds, sending you returning to square a single while court docket time will be running. Interesting to cover is the specific situation of corporations that may change the particular address with the registered headquarters , nor have a sudden obligation to be able to notify this kind of changes for the Mercantile registry. The key authority is not going to pay for almost any expenses for instance access with a mercantile registry.
One more defect, is at the dependence on “Personal Exclusive Service”, concept which is understood in numerous ways in numerous countries: Bailiffs or perhaps Local Judicial Representatives apply the area Code regarding Civil Procedure rather than the specific instructions acquired from overseas jurisdictions.
In practice, what will be understood in accordance law since “Personal” will be understood inside Europe since “Substitute” as well as the problem boosts if we all distinguish among service to be able to corporations coming from service to be able to individuals. Any time servicing businesses, this has to be completed inside the person of the individuals that have the power to represent the corporation, that is always to say the particular “officers” freely listed inside the mercantile registry. Therefore service for the front workplace, secretary, gardener or perhaps any employee of your corporation, will be “Substitute service”. For folks, most neighborhood laws enable officers to be able to leave documents on the address given or leave a note in the entranceway as comparable of program. These representatives, do not want to comprehend the hierarchy with the Hague Convention on this sense and which are the “Lex fori Forums” wants. Instructions regarding service for the central specialist, transform directly into let’s take action our legal which can be not automatically valid around the other legislation.
Remark as a result, that the usage of “insistence and also perseverance” just isn’t possible from the “Centralized method”, its efficiency just isn’t good and it’s also only, by way of a exclusive personal server you could achive the most effective results, have an overabundance legal safety on program and what exactly is the many relevant, you will end up courteous in your adversary and clear on your circumstance.
These previously mentioned reasons describe why most frequent Law Attorneys used as several many “tricks” as you can or patches to eliminate these obstacles with the “Central” approach, I usually do not blame these. Sometimes by way of “an agent” which regularly is, their particular local method server, their particular friendly “tacky” translation company or perhaps their neighborhood’s Exclusive Investigators. The reality is, that on the long term, not only they’ve got wasted moment and money nevertheless they are accountable of fraudulence to global law, defamation, Against the law practice regarding law, Great time-saver of Strategies… and to perform the apocalypse, or even prosecuted or perhaps challenged, the view obtained is not going to pass “Exequatur” (Enforcement).
Undoubtedly then, in which ignoring Eu laws, rights regarding image and also privacy between other can occur and may have undesired effects. Jurisprudence provides considered in which services accomplished this techniques as irregular and possess engage the particular liability with the plaintiff.
The “Lex fori forum” and also “Plaintiff’s Attorney” are usually obliged ex-lege to be able to respect the particular lex-loci or perhaps the legitimate requirements with the jurisdiction in which documents will probably be served and also these starts acquainted with confidentiality, secrecy plus a proper translation of documents because the basic proper of offender.
Service regarding Process need to protect the particular defendant in another country. It will be my knowing that “Lex fori” method servers, Low Certified Translations Organizations, even together with offices inside Europe as well as other intruders inside the chain regarding International law suit can significantly contaminate an incident.
There are usually, a group of channels in a “alternatives or perhaps decentralized method”, more reliable sufficient reason for more efficient approaches to serve, they’re replacing the particular anachronistic key method.
Centralized Program of Process gets the following qualities:
a. Large Cost
chemical. No big difference between Men and women and Businesses
2. Program Speed: Slow and will paralyze effortlessly
3. Preceding Exam regarding legality
any. Slows straight down
4. Specific Address
5. Low Personal Program
6. Simply no Courtesy
7. Simply no Confidentiality
Hague’s Alternative way of International Program of Method
The Choice method is made up by programs, using them gets the same legitimate value and also effects because the “Centralized” approach, if the united states of “Lex Loci” provides presented simply no express opposition in their mind,. there is not any hierarchy among “Centralized” and also “Decentralized” strategies.
Art. 10 any, Service by way of a Currier, UPS, Fedex, DHL, Postal, fax, world wide web (e mail or messenger), as validated by diverse jurisprudence usually are not reliable, even when they are usually contemplated and also accepted in a few countries. Associated with that they not enough “legal assures of shipping and delivery of contents” violating the particular Principle regarding Contradiction, and Equality in the fair Thinking. These channels brings the offender into “defenseless”. Therefore they may be mostly regarded by jurisprudence since “evidence of your address” greater than evidence of your Legal Notification. The Hague Meeting permits these kinds of in Write-up 10, nevertheless they require several logical complements being “Legally binding” even when the Convention will not indicates people. Indeed, you can serve blanc web pages by email or fax given that nobody can check the particular contents and also thereto have a judgment automagically. Because with this, I advise a “Certification regarding Contents” essential either around the sending Jurisdictions or inside the receiving Jurisdiction by way of a qualified, but done by way of a qualified professional which includes “Public trust” The particular postal regarding fax receipt usually are not an affidavit.
Understand that the aim of service regarding process in another country is transferring information, a legitimate notification with a defendant, inform him of your “cause” where he will be part and which may have significant consequences inside his patrimony, rights and also obligations while they will is likely to jurisdiction.
These rights has to be respected and also protected from the rules with the legal art to avoid Arbitrary program of legislation and fraudulence to Global law. In order to avoid this, the Hague Meeting canalizes these kinds of notifications through in thought internal regulations Art. 5 yet without providing ways to control it or even a procedure regarding appeal. It imposes the particular protection regarding defendant’s legal rights and obligations along with those with the plaintiff but will not says precisely how this might be materialized. You should determine, not in the event the notification has been done yet if it absolutely was properly completed. Service simply by mail, fax or perhaps email have become fragile channels that really must be avoided..
These different channels are usually symbol with the “Liberty regarding Transmittal” yet have access excesses, including the email, reasons why the decentralized approach, has recently been wrongly comprehended by several Common legislation Attorneys,. Translators and also Private Real estate agents. This happened as the “mechanism regarding service” utilized and employed continues to be the “known one” one that sound plausible, unconsciously utilized in infringement of overseas laws. Specialists have utilize what they will know, being a reflex, they’ve got used the identical manners in terms of their express notifications and possess sent abroad bull crap. This provides resulted, inside failure to be able to enforce, impossibility regarding judgment recovery or simply just a inhibited of program. A distinction has to be made among a banal Program of Method and a worldwide Service regarding Process also to honor global justice even when the effects of one’s judgment will continue to be in the jurisdiction accomplish that international program properly, is merely a make a difference of Global legal politeness.
The school of thought behind as well as the rational reason, is that the thought of “Public trust” is quite different to be able to each tradition and their particular legal buy. Think that opposite to be able to Europe, – Simply no Governmental Recognition Card exist in accordance law nations around the world, there is not any central terrain and/or house registry, at times Notaries are usually simple men and women, Process Server and/or Translators have got minimal specifications. In outdated and knowledgeable Europe, everything will be “suspicious” and so surrounded from the maximum assures of legitimate security enforced from the state with “Felony or perhaps Criminal level” in order to avoid any achievable “misunderstanding”, “fraud”, “deviation” or perhaps “Abuse”.
Inside Europe. program of method, either regarding internal functions, European Functions or regarding International overseas courts, is known as as any penetration regarding “Jurisdictional Power”, when completed it is in reality a “delegation regarding powers” for the server. Inside Europe. the particular monopoly regarding legal portrayal, actuation and also consultation, continues to be given, traditionally and also since old, to different “Legal Corporations”. Private real estate agents are excluded of the basic specifications.
The law firm associations are usually those regarding “Huissiers de Justice”, “Procuradores”, “Ufficiali Judiciario”, “Abogados”, “Avocats”, “Advogados”…. Unlike frequent law nations around the world where just about anyone mentaly capable is able to do these “legal items and jurisdictional acts”. You should, know in which only qualified legal professionals can assist properly and also legally generally in most of The european union since will be the only specialists, who can provide “Ex-lege” the mandatory and essential legal assures. Service by way of a “Agent” since known in accordance law will not exist inside Europe nor inside the Hague Meeting, it continues to be used yet this usage will not rises program by agents with a legal period.
Logically discussed: If virtually any country’s regulations of City Procedure secures for inside service regarding process, an operation that needs guarantees regarding public rely on; given only from the use certified professionals, why, for Global Service, you will use any person? An realtor? In bottom line: When inside Rome, do because the Romans!
We have to distinguish among communications for the Central specialist or with all the Server and also notification or perhaps service regarding process for the defendant. You are an organ as well as the other any defendant. Communication with all the Central Specialist of for the server may be in the slightest, even e-mail.
Also remember that the Hague Meeting obliges program of process to own two very revealing and play acted requirements regarding acceptance: of your accord and knowingly. These may be compared with a “bilateral duty in City Law” (Notice Article 5 (t) alinea with the Hague Meeting). As a result, if the particular defendant just isn’t “capable to be able to understand” what he could be receiving, service will be viced as well as the “Defendant can easily refuse service”. If documents usually are not translated he could be not “capable to be able to understand”. The defendant just isn’t sense to learn foreign regulations or could possibly be economically inhibited, but several presumption are present: If the particular defendant just isn’t served multilingual Legal professional and advise at this time of Program or in the event the documents consist of No Legitimate Notice and also etceteras, the defendant is at “Procedural defenseless” and so service regarding process just isn’t valid and also useless.
Program to Businesses doing Global Business, those beneath the Hague regarding 1956 regarding “Company recognition” it has to be presumed which they speak the particular language with the Jurisdiction when the carry enterprise and realize their regulations. The Hague Convention will not distinguishes among services in accordance with defendant; Personal or Businesses. Therefore, I look at the Hague since placing a great obstacle in service to businesses, since the particular plaintiff will be oblige to be able to translate the particular documents. Logically Corporations shouldn’t use the particular central specialist, they do not require it.
The Hague Meeting indicates “voluntary acceptance” being a condition regarding service, this will not mean “Refusal constantly and systematically to have civil or perhaps commercial impunity”. On this sense, program by Qualified Mail, e mail, fax as well as other unilateral works of program, which we could be take into account as “Adherence” coming from defendant to be able to service, hold the common denominator the defendant just isn’t accepting of your accord, since he could be receiving one thing with unidentified contents. The contents will see later and he could be accepting initial, therefore contradicting the particular Hague meeting confirming in this way that these kinds of channels nearly as good for any verification of your address however, not of program.
In bottom line, Certified Email, email and also fax usually are not proper means of serving plus a Court accepting this type of service are usually refusing rights for the defendant unless they are backup by a professional professional’s Affidavit regarding service.
“Service simply by Agent” since understood in accordance law, just isn’t contemplated inside the Hague Meeting on Program of Method, it will be another programmed reflex and contains been employed by many frequent law Legal professionals. These realtor services have got required translations regarding documents as the Agent employed, in many cases echoes the language with the Attorney demanding service. Often he could be a overseas national in the united states of program, sometimes against the law, but whatever the case not qualify to achieve this kind regarding Job. They offer “Shaky” services good fact which they speaks the particular language with the Attorney demanding service and also dare to be able to violate all sorts of laws, anyways a lot of them have practically nothing to reduce..
These “Merchants regarding Process serving” utilize translations to boost profit also to reduce the likelihood of upcoming challenge regarding service. Generally in most European nations around the world, it is known as. that “Legal Guarantees”, are merely given to be able to, and get by listed and covered by insurance professionals, recognized and also controlled from the governments and also grouped inside special interactions or businesses submitted to be able to strict honesty control: These kinds of agents are usually an slander to legislation and buy. The legislation and validated Jurisprudence shields “defendant’s rights” in opposition to poor “qualities and also qualifications” of your “dummy server” or perhaps anyone coming from here or perhaps there, a great intruder, who to get a “fist packed with dollars” can issue a great affidavit. Therefore program by “Agent” is achievable if and only if the particular Agent being used can be a qualified law firm in the united states of program.
It can be a interesting anecdote, that we found a great “International program of method company inside Spain” in which also can “plumbing” services from your same business office, a enterprise run by way of a felon providing affidavits also to program completed to be able to non present address or perhaps people this individual never observed.
It can be a shame in which Justices and also Attorneys in United states often, acknowledge, for global service regarding process, affidavits regarding persons that do not offer you any assures or hold the essential “Public trust”, looking down sufficient reason for disrespect the particular rights regarding defendants as well as the laws regarding procedure of your foreign region. Indeed, utilizing anyone regarding international program of method, is any disregard about justice and also disrespect regarding International and also local legislation. To assist properly you need to respect overseas laws regarding procedure! You need to understand the particular European concepts associated with a “Procedural Notification” and also respect regarding “Justice”.
Ultimately, art. 10 chemical, considers since “Agent” any Judicial police officer or bailiff. Service simply by these agent be determined by the sort of person to be able to served: Actual or Juridical. In a few jurisdictions, serving any corporation has to be to any “Registered Officer” because it appears around the mercantile registry of these country or their legitimate department or perhaps representative as well as the place regarding service must be the listed headquarters otherwise it’ll be a replacement service (Men and women or Corporations may be served with their Attorney’s office). When Individuals, an realtor can dished up them at their property or office., but not in the public spot.
One overabundance the Hague Convention could be the requirement with an exact deal with for program, meaning the requester will need to have the specific information. This need reduces the particular rights with the plaintiff since a professional legal specialist acting since agent can easily complete program to a couple of addresses in order to avoid impunity regarding defendants, frankly, serve the particular address inside the writ regarding summons as well as the legal or perhaps present deal with.
Service may be completed simply by directly training a Judicial officer of your Bailiff, article 10 c with the Convention, employing these as organ so when server, nevertheless they will problem am “Act” or perhaps document inside the official language with the country, you will need to pay to get a supplent regarding translation directly into English language and in the end the legalization regarding signature. Our own Hydrid program take’s attention of almost everything.
Please bear in mind, the basic principle in Europe could be the “Protection with the rights and also obligations regarding litigants” by homework completed together with integrity and also by certified and trustworthy professional not an “affidavit” received in unknown circumstances with any judicial result in price or perhaps at the law expense.
Summarizing: The a couple of main strategies both hold the same legitimate value inside Hague Convention no “Hierarchy” are present amongst these, one will be bad as well as the other will be worse, they may be equally weak, but merging them is achievable and results in to a more trustworthy international program:
WARNING: Translations and also Apostilles (Legalizations) usually are not necessary but if you utilize them understand that the Translator has to be “Certified” from the “Foreign Extramarital relationships department” or perhaps the “Local Appellate or perhaps Superior Court”. The usage of a neighborhood Notary Community to certify the signature in the translation will not corrects the particular errors regarding “tacky” translations. The usage of a low registered “Attorneys with Law” beneath most jurisdictions of the european union for works reserved for the legal career causes “contamination of one’s case”, participating your responsibility: Protecting the particular rights regarding litigants can be your obligation. Usually do not use basically anyone ready to issue any statement regarding service affidavit or even qualified.
Inventing Global Service regarding Process: The particular Hybrid method
Our “Hybrid method of global personal exclusive service regarding process” includes, not simply “methods”, but in addition the diverse channels or perhaps options with the convention, applied simply by steps and also in a smaller amount time the “centralized”. The result can be a better program that will take the optimistic side of each and every method so that you can obtain the most effective legal assures: We ponder over it as “System”, higher than a method, please check with us so we could discuss the case service in more detail and how our system applies.
The particular hybrid method for Global Service regarding Process, heals the particular disadvantages with the Hague Conference’s centralized method as well as the abuses inside the use and also application with the decentralized different method. This is a non difficult service regarding process obtaining the characteristics regarding Legality, trustworthiness and quickly. On one other hand, the “system” can be applied the principles with the Hague Meeting combined to be able to each legislation, incoming and also outgoing, and also their individual laws regarding procedure. The “legal order” is always to obtain with all the maximum legality and also protection regarding litigants, the main feature is in which: Service will be double, a preliminary International program and a great Euro program.
The method provides the rights with the plaintiff and also defendants are usually guarantee and also protected simply by registered and also insured multilingual Legal professionals at Law in the united states of program. Documents are usually delivered personally in every confidentiality by way of a legal professional that will give advise inside the language with the defendant, making that comprehensive by providing complete legitimate notice and also explaining what direction to go. All companies are completed with mandatory secrecy and also neutrality, Courtesy and also professionalism beneath the respect regarding internal regulations of City procedure.
The defendant won’t have an substitute for refuse program, or claim being “unprotected” there’s no “a priori” test of items or postpone, no translation’s expense or apostilles, no claims of program but any “Jurisdictional work completed in accordance with local law by way of a qualified legitimate professional”, Note advantages;
a. The defendant won’t have an substitute for refuse program, or claim being “unprotected”
t. Liberty to decide on process server inside legal career market benefit.
c. There’s no “a priori” test of items or postpone in tests
d. Simply no translation’s expense Nor apostilles, stapples, plastic stamps or movies!
e. Undoubtedly on shipping and delivery of Items
e. Program with “Professional Integrity”
farreneheit. Customer program and Affidavit inside English
gary. Une regarding Bailiff any time required
l. Service will be guaranteed inside delivery
my partner and i. Service will be guaranteed inside court
… and even more
Our value list, reflect the necessity of ingesting consideration several legal and also practical areas of service inside Europe, specially in order to avoid incidents and also possible concern, appellate “quash” going forward, we offer services which can be cheaper compared to the “Centralized” method sufficient reason for the identical value.
The diverse classes regarding service we all proposed vary in line with the required moment for program: Urgent, and also each provides different defenses. We always start with a “Skip Track or Locate” so that you can obtain a defined address depending on mandatory element the Hague Convention also to avoid an individual unnecessary expenditures, then we all mail a preliminary service regarding process to be able to verify the particular address regarding delivery and also physical lifestyle. Our correspondence, asking with an appointment or perhaps an meeting and inserting ourselves since neutral Legal professionals at Legislation available since required for legal reasons to steer clear of defenseless simply by counseling the particular defendant. Through the interview, in presence of your local Judicial Police officer or Bailiff any time required, we validate the identity with the receiver, his familiarity with the language where documents are usually written and also explain in more detail their legal rights and commitments. All with this procedure will be condensed in the Custom produced affidavit which is legalized from the Notary Public with the diplomatic representation with the lex fori (Frankly: the Consul)..